The new law – the Consumer Product Safety Improvement Act – was prompted by a wave of recalls of lead-tainted toys and other hazardous items.
The new vote puts formal rules in place which require products designed for children aged 12 and under to go for third-party safety testing before they are sold.
The requirements include provisions such as testing for lead or lead paint in product materials, identifying hazards.
"People might assume independent safety tests were already required for toys. But the reality is, too often, dangerous toys aren’t discovered until there’s a tragedy," said Ami Gadhia, senior policy counsel for Consumers Union.
"These rules will go a long way toward preventing unnecessary harm to our children, as well as avoiding costly recalls."